Knowledge Management and Organizational Knowledge Management Creation

“Knowledge is Power”

– Thomas Jefferson

I strongly believe in the famous words of Thomas Jefferson that, “knowledge is power” and knowledge is indispensable, especially throughout a person’s lifetime. Drucker (1968), Bell (1973) and Toffer (1990) also posits that the society that we live in has been gradually turning into a “knowledge society”. These so-called “knowledge societies” include organizations that practice Knowledge Management as a tool for obtaining or gathering knowledge and then distributing information or knowledge to those who need to acquire it as well.

With this crash course on Knowledge Management, let us tackle the progression of a Learning Organization from Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom. We will also discuss the dynamic theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation as made famous by the two theorists, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1994).

1. Data

It is a raw, unprocessed record of an aspect or an event. It represents a fact or statement of event without relation to other things.

Examples: Words, numbers, codes, tables, databases

2. Information

It embodies the understanding of a relationship of some sort, possibly cause and effect.

Examples: Sentences, paragraphs, equations, concepts, ideas, questions, sample stories

3. Knowledge

It represents a pattern that connects and generally provides a high level of predictability as to what is described or what will happen next.

Examples: Chapters, theories, axioms, conceptual frameworks, complex stories, facts

4. Wisdom

It embodies more of an understanding of fundamental principles embodied within the knowledge that are essentially the basis for the knowledge being what it is. Wisdom is essentially systemic.

Examples: Books, paradigms, systems, churches, philosophies, schools, poetry, belief systems, traditions, principles, truths

Organizational Management Creation

Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1994) dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation holds that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous dialogue between tacit and explicit knowledge via four patterns of interactions, socialization, combination, internalization and externalization. Tacit knowledge is gained from personal experience that is more difficult to express. Explicit knowledge is is easy to articulate, write down, and share.

1. Socialization (Tacit to Tacit)

Socialization is the process of sharing tacit knowledge through observation, imitation, practice, and participation in formal and informal communities (Yeh et al., 2011). The socialization process is usually preempted by the creation of a physical or virtual space where a given community can interact on a social level.

2. Externalization (Tacit to Explicit)

Externalization is the process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts (Yeh et al., 2011). Since tacit knowledge is highly internalized, this process is the key to knowledge sharing and creation. It uses metaphors, analogies, hypothesis and models.

3. Combination (Explicit to Explicit)

Combination is the process of integrating concepts into a knowledge system (Yeh et al., 2011). In also involves the systemizing of concepts into a knowledge system. This involves the use of media or information technology (IT).

4. Internalization (Explicit to Tacit)

Internalization is the process of embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). It is regarded as “Learning by doing” to arrive at mental models. It uses documents, manuals, and oral stories.

With that being said, we already know how organizations operate or practice knowledge management. This crash course on Knowledge Management: Concepts and Techniques, will serve as an enrichment for acquiring and disseminating knowledge in the school, workplace, or any institutions.


Andre, D. (2018, October 15). Knowledge Management – The SECI Model (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1996) || Tacit and Explicit Knowledge. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from

Boehnert, D. (2013, January 19). Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from

Nonaka, I. (1994). A Dynamic theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from

Pedro. (2018, June 30). The difference between data, information, knowledge and wisdom. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from

Published by janvincentbarroga

I am currently a BA-Communications student from the University of Baguio.

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